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1st Edition
Contents:
  1. Safety Analysis and Certification of Embedded Systems
  2. Systems & Safety: Expertise centres Altran UK
  3. Cross-sector expertise

Safety Analysis and Certification of Embedded Systems

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View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title Safety-critical systems, by definition those systems whose failure can cause catastrophic results for people, the environment, and the economy, are becoming increasingly complex both in their functionality and their interactions with the environment. Buy New Learn more about this copy. About AbeBooks. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image.

Published by Auerbach Publications Seller Rating:. New Hardcover Quantity Available: Book Depository hard to find London, United Kingdom. New Quantity Available: 5. Chiron Media Wallingford, United Kingdom. New Hardcover Quantity Available: 1. Production Trees PT allow modeling the relationship between the units of a production system with a particular attention to the production levels of the units located upstream and downstream a production line.

For that new modeling operators have been introduced allowing to gather or to split the flows upstream or downstream a PT. Our results include the reliability level of the power system configuration in terms of load interruption, load loss probability and related frequency indices, and the importance factor of components to identify the critical parts of the system. Architecture description languages such as AADL allow systems engineers to specify the structure of system architectures and perform several analyses over them, including schedulability, resource analysis, and information flow.

In addition, they permit system-level requirements to be specified and analyzed early in the development process of airborne and ground-based systems. These tools can also be used to perform safety analysis based on the system architecture and initial functional decomposition. This includes extensions to existing modeling languages to better describe failure conditions, interactions, and mitigations, and improvements to compositional reasoning approaches focused on the specific needs of system safety analysis.

In the effort to develop critical systems, taking account of failure modes is of vital importance. However, when systems fail even in a manner previously determined as acceptable , a lot of the invariants that hold in the case of nominal behaviour also fail. A technique is proposed that permits the inclusion of the strong invariants of nominal behaviour alongside the provisions for degraded behaviour in an inclusive formal system model. The faulty system model is derived from the nominal one via fault injection, and the nominal and faulty system models are related via a formal retrenchment step.

Manipulation of the retrenchment data permits the inclusion of the stronger invariants, which remain provable when faults are disabled in a generic manner in the faulty model, thus increasing confidence in the overall system design. The details are developed in Event-B, and the concept is illustrated using a toy switching example.

Socio-technical systems are characterized by the interplay of heterogeneous entities i. Application domains such as petroleum, e-health, and many others rely on solutions based on safety-critical socio-technical systems. To ensure a safe operation of these interacting heterogeneous entities, multifaceted and integrated modeling and analysis capabilities are needed. Currently, such capabilities are not at disposal. To contribute to the provision of such capabilities, in this paper we propose SafeConcert, a metamodel that offers constructs to model socio-technical entities and their safety-related properties.

What is CRITICAL SYSTEM? What does CRITICAL SYSTEM mean? CRITICAL SYSTEM meaning & explanation

SafeConcert also represents a unified and harmonized language that supports the integrated application of qualitative as well as quantitative safety analyses techniques. The design of complex safety critical systems raises new technical challenges for the industry. As systems become more complex—and include more and more interacting functions—it becomes harder to evaluate the safety implications of local failures and their possible propagation through a whole system.

That is all the more true when we add time to the problem, that is when we consider the impact of computation times and delays on the propagation of failures. We describe an approach that extends models developed for Safety Analysis with timing information and provide tools to reason on the correctness of temporal safety conditions. Our approach is based on an extension of the AltaRica language where we can associate timing constraints with events and relies on a translation into a realtime model-checking toolset.

We illustrate our method with an example that is representative of safety architectures found in critical systems. The method combines models, logic, probabilities and nature-inspired algorithms to provide advanced capabilities for design optimisation, requirement allocation and safety argument generation. To deal with dynamic systems, HiP-HOPS has introduced temporal operators and a temporal logic to represent and assess event sequences in component failure modelling. Although this approach has been shown to work, it is not entirely consistent with the way designers tend to express operational dynamics in models which show mode and state sequences.

To align HiP-HOPS better with typical design techniques, in this paper, we extend the method with the ability to explicitly consider different modes of operation. With this added capability HiP-HOPS can create and analyse temporal fault trees from architectural models of a system which are augmented with mode information. We develop a First Principle Model FPM simulator of a solenoid micro-valve of the control system of a train braking system. This is used for failure diagnostic when field data of normal and abnormal system behaviors are lacking. A procedure is proposed to adjust the diagnostic model once field data are available.

Learning-based testing LBT is an emerging paradigm for fully automated requirements testing. This approach combines machine learning and model-checking techniques for test case generation and verdict construction. LBT is well suited to requirements testing of low-latency safety critical embedded systems, such as can be found in the automotive sector. We evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of applying LBT to two safety critical industrial automotive applications. We also benchmark our LBT tool against an existing industrial test tool that executes manually written test cases.

The growing complexity of safety-relevant systems causes an increasing effort for safety assurance. The reduction of development costs and time-to-market, while guaranteeing safe operation, is therefore a major challenge.

Systems & Safety: Expertise centres Altran UK

In order to enable efficient safety assessment of complex architectures, we present an approach, which combines deductive safety analyses, in form of Component Fault Trees CFTs , with an Error Effect Simulation EES for sanity checks. The combination reduces the drawbacks of both analyses, such as the subjective failure propagation assumptions in the CFTs or the determination of relevant fault scenarios for the EES.

Both CFTs and the EES provide a modular, reusable and compositional safety analysis and are applicable throughout the whole design process. They support continuous model refinement and the reuse of conducted safety analysis and simulation models. Hence, safety goal violations can be identified in early design stages and the reuse of conducted safety analyses reduces the overhead for safety assessment. Modern automotive vehicles represent one category of CPS Cyber-Physical Systems that are inherently time- and safety-critical.

To justify the actions for quality-of-service adaptation and safety assurance, it is fundamental to perceive the uncertainties of system components in operation, which are caused by emergent properties, design or operation anomalies. From an industrial point of view, a further challenge is related to the usages of generic purpose COTS Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components, which are separately developed and evolved, often not sufficiently verified and validated for specific automotive contexts.

Cross-sector expertise

While introducing additional uncertainties in regard to the overall system performance and safety, the adoption of COTS components constitutes a necessary means for effective product evolution and innovation. Accordingly, we propose in this paper a novel approach that aims to enable advanced operation monitoring and self-assessment in regard to operational uncertainties and thereby automated performance and safety awareness. In particular, we also present some initial concepts in regard to the usage performance and safety awareness for quality-of-service adaptation and dynamic risk mitigation.

System safety assessments are integral part of system development as indicated by the ARPA standard.