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  1. Introduction
  2. Self, Narrative Perspective of |
  3. The Travelling Concepts of Narrative
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Herman imagines instruction in which students are actively co-constructing their understandings of content through activity, rather than having him tell them the answers. Language teachers' narrative inquiry as professional development takes time, envelops various people and places, takes place in particular institutional contexts and teacher education practices, and moves repeatedly between engagement in the activities of teaching and reflection on and expert-mediated reasoning about those activities.

As these teachers' narrative inquiry projects make clear, engagement in narrative activity, oral or written, with students or teacher educators, in graduate courses or reflective journals, influences how teachers come to understand themselves as teachers, their teaching, and their learning-to-teach experiences.


The narrative activity that teachers engage in becomes the very entities they inquire into—for Kong, what kinds of questions do I ask? Engagement in narrative activity has the potential to ignite certain cognitive processes that can, with expert mediation, transform teachers' thinking and doing. On the other hand, engagement in narrative inquiry over time and place, enables teachers to trace their own development, as it is unfolding, and to highlight the mediational spaces, dialogic interactions, and pedagogical tools that foster it. As much as we still believe these narrative inquiry projects are done for teachers by teachers, our Vygotskian sociocultural epistemological stance requires that we position them as deeply embedded in institutional contexts and teacher education practices that mold both what and how teachers learn to teach.

Self, Narrative Perspective of |

And what happens inside these contexts and practices matters. As we saw with both Kong's and Herman's narrative inquiry projects, we, as teacher educators, played a critical role in creating mediational spaces for them to engage in narrative activity. Practicing a lesson, interacting during a stimulated recall session, re-envisioning a lesson plan, all constitute mediational spaces where we encouraged them to externalize their current understandings, to verbalize new ways of thinking and doing, to project what could be done in an imagined future, and to consider the consequences of their teaching practices on their students.

Teachers may engage in narrative activity without engaging in narrative inquiry. However, engaging in narrative inquiry requires narrative activity, and within those spaces, we offered our expertise as teacher educators to help teachers critically analyze their teaching practices, to re-envision their future teacher selves, and to articulate theoretically and pedagogical sound reasons for their teaching practices. As Kong so aptly articulated: " it took me over one year to gradually internalize the pedagogical tool 'teach off your students, not at them' into a psychological tool that guided and regulated my conceptual thinking and teaching practices.

As novice teachers, could Kong and Herman have reached these new levels of understanding without our assistance? Perhaps, but probably not. Internalizing pedagogical tools such as "teaching off your students" or "co-constructing with, rather than telling students" not only requires repeated and sustained attempts to enact them in instructional activity but mediation, such as providing alternative activities, voicing expert ways of saying things, and providing validation.

Engaging with discovery learning can be a time consuming and misleading trial that reinforces a novice teacher's feeling of incompetence; moreover, the consequences for student learning are too important. As teacher educators, we have a responsibility to push our teachers' professional development within the brief time frame we have to work together to support the professional and emotional well-being of our teachers but also for their future students.

We emphasize that narrative inquiry as professional development is a cultural practice, and as such, teachers need to be consciously aware of and immersed in the intentions, motives, and goals of this practice and the expert others' probably teacher educators' mediation. And while we hope that experienced teachers continue to engage in narrative inquiry with expert others, including in collaboration with colleagues, we acutely recognize the conditions of the teaching profession that may be barriers.

How then do we best support teachers' narrative inquiry as professional development? By creating mediational spaces where teachers are supported by expert others as they engage in narrative activity. By providing systematic and intentional teacher educator mediation. By making explicit the intentions, motives, and goals of mediational spaces and offering mediation directed where individual teachers are at. By assisting teachers as they attempt to trace their own developing expertise in various ways. By recognizing that engagement in narrative inquiry is unbounded by time and place, is a fluid and emerging process, and shaped by expert mediation, the transformative power of narrative activity can help to promote teachers' professional development over time.

As a result, we are often grouped incorrectly with Clandinin and Connelly who describe narrative inquiry as a form of qualitative research that uses various tools that elicit and illustrate the storied lives of teachers and the way teachers use stories to make sense of their experiences.

Barkhuizen, G. Narrative research in applied linguistics. Narrative inquiry in language teaching and learning research. New York, US: Routledge. Clandinin, D. Narrative inquiry: Experience and story in qualitative research. Dewey, J. How we think. Chicago, US: Henry Regnery.

Freeman, D. Doing teacher research: From inquiry to understanding. Johnson, K. The sociocultural turn and its challenges for L2 teacher education.

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Second language teacher education: A sociocultural perspective. Reclaiming the relevance of L2 teacher education. The Modern Language Journal, 99 3 , Narrative inquiry as professional development.

The Travelling Concepts of Narrative

Research on second language teacher education: A sociocultural perspective on professional development. The transformative power of narrative in second language teacher education. Mindful L2 teacher education: A sociocultural perspective on cultivating teachers' professional development. Karpov, Y. Vygotsky for educators. Kong, H. Seeing teacher professional development: A classroom based analysis of questioning patterns Master's thesis.

Mehan, H. The structure of classroom discourse. Handbook of discourse analysis: Vol. Discourse and dialogue pp. Malden, US: Blackwell.

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Vygotsky, L. Mind in society. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Souberman Eds. Thought and language A.

Kozulin, Trans. Thinking and speech N.

Minick, Trans. Reiber Ed. Vygotsky: Vol. Problems of the theory and history of Psychology pp.

Wells, G. The meaning makers: Children learning language and using language to learn. Portsmouth, US: Heinemann. Language Teaching Research, 20 2 , Her research interests include narrative inquiry as professional development, teacher learning in second language teacher education, and sociocultural research and perspectives on teacher professional development.

Her research interests include narrative inquiry as professional development, teacher learning in second language teacher education, and sociocultural research and perspectives on language teacher professional development. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Article. English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail.

Introduction PROFILE has published language classroom research conducted by experienced and novice teachers, teacher educators, and teacher researchers over the last seventeen years. Using Dewey's theory and the examples of various language teachers' narrative inquiry, we argued for teachers' narrative inquiry as professional development because of the potential changes that self-examination can produce: inquiry into experience enables teachers to act with foresight.

It gives them increasing control over their thoughts and actions; grants their experiences enriched, deepened meaning; and enables them to be more thoughtful and mindful of their work. We thus positioned narrative activity as a mediational means, arguing that: The act of narrating, as a cultural activity, influences how one comes to understand what one is narrating about.

The Brain's Greatest Con Trick - Bruce Hood

The telling or retelling either oral or written of an experience entails a complex combination of description, explanation, analysis, interpretation, and construal of one's private reality as it is brought into the public sphere. Excerpt 1 S1: presenting summary of story 1 T: so the question is where's the, did the story take, take place? Is that? T: yeah, yeah, yes, it's fine, ok, let's welcome the next presenter.

Actual Teach Video - Much to her dismay, her questioning patterns generated little or no response from the students. In her reflection paper, Kong wrote: Excerpt 2 After each student presented his or her summary, I asked questions to them, which are pre-designed and have a connection with the presentation part. A difficulty in exploring the subjective ESS is that we are not always aware of the feeling of self i.

Therefore, a possible approach for the awareness for the self would be to focus on those errors, namely, everyday experiences that might be caused by an abnormal ESS e. That was how the current study explored the factorial structure of the ESS, and as a result, and more importantly, the current study developed a questionnaire that reflects on that factorial structure.

The questionnaire could be a useful tool for measuring an anomalous ESS, especially for patients with mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia. Similar approaches based on subjective reports for the sense of self have already been reported e. For example, prototype scales for the sense of action i. Parnas et al. With reference to these previous studies, the current study aimed to develop a scale for a more comprehensive ESS and examine its factorial structure.

What factors can we assume contribute to the ESS? First of all, as noted above, the sense of body, the physical boundary between the self and the environment, is fundamental for the ESS. Once we have a body, we can move it Asai, a. The body enables us to act as an agent in the world. This concept has been extended by empirical evidence so that the sense of ownership includes not only my own body but external tools Iriki et al.

The minimal self, however, might be imperfect for self-representation. Gallagher also referred to the narrative self , the self with temporal extension and continuity across time White, Right after we have a sensory experience, it goes past.